Diabetes - a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) resulting from the production and action of insulin secreted by beta cells of the pancreas. Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. Because of the cause and course of the disease, we can distinguish: type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and other less common types.
The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which consists of reducing the sensitivity of the tissues to insulin (insulin resistance). This condition requires the production of an excessive amount of insulin, which in the course of the disease exceeds the capacity of secretion of the pancreas. In type 2 diabetes, beta cell damage in the pancreas and deterioration and later arrest of insulin secretion.
Type 1 diabetes is based on the secretion of primary insulin and insufficient, while maintaining a normal tissue sensitivity to this hormone. Gestational diabetes is the result of hormonal changes related to pregnancy.
Types 1 and 2 are polygenic, that is to say that they are the result of mutations in several genes, unlike monogenetics, for example. MODY
The principle of modern diabetes therapy is the treatment of all the disorders that accompany the disease, not just the control of carbohydrate metabolism. Research to normalize body weight, increase exercise, adequate diet, frequent treatment of diabetes, lipid disorders, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, and maintain glucose as close to Diabetic (normoglycemia) reduces the risk of complications of the disease.